That Conference 2017 – SASS and CSS for Developers

That Conference 2017, Kalahari Resort, Lake Delton, WI
SASS and CSS for Developers – Robert Boedigheimer

Day 1, 7 Aug 2017

Disclaimer: This post contains my own thoughts and notes based on attending That Conference 2017 presentations. Some content maps directly to what was originally presented. Other content is paraphrased or represents my own thoughts and opinions and should not be construed as reflecting the opinion of the speakers.

Executive Summary

  • Use CSS for styling your web site
  • SASS makes writing CSS much easier
  • Lots of great constructs for modern UI in both CSS and SASS
  • Some good 3rd party libraries out there (e.g. Bourbon)

About Me

CSS

  • Cascading Style Sheet
  • Describes presentation of a document

Why CSS?

  • Site-wide changes by modifying the styles
  • Support multiple views
  • Leaner pages
  • http://Csszengarden.com
    • Shows how difference style sheets leads to radically different views

Style Rule

  • Selector
    {
    property: value;
    }

Using CSS

  • Inline
    • Style attribute directly on elements
  • Embedded
    • Styles at top of page in <head>
  • External style sheet
    • Style rules collected in .css file
    • Include via <link>
    • (Almost) always do it this way

Cascading

  • Inline first, then top of page, then external

Basic Selectors

  • Element, e.g. h1, div
  • Id
    • #idName
  • Class
    • One or more elements can have this class value
    • .classname

Pseudo Elements and Classes

  • Styles not based on document structure
  • Begins with colon
  • E.g. Style around focused element
    • a:focus { …

Inheritance

  • Elements from document parsed into tree based on structure
    • E.g. Apply style to body, inherited by <div>, <h1> in body

Colors

  • Named colors
    • 17 in CSS 2.1, 140 more in CSS 3
  • RGB

Box Model

  • Margin on outside
  • Border
  • Padding on inside

Common Techniques

  • Cursor
  • display:none – visibility, can turn on/off
  • text-transform – universally apply transform to text, e.g. all caps
  • z-index – overlapping, higher is on top
  • Non-scrolling areas

Reset or Normalize Stylesheet

  • Goal is to reduce browser inconsistencies
  • Reset – set default styles, apply everything yourself
  • Normalize.css – the same across all browsers

RB: Going to Bootstrap for all of our web properties now

CSS 3 Background

  • Series of “Modules”
    • Easier to manage than one big specification
    • Make for easier updates
    • Devices w/constraints can implement just modules that are appropriate to that device
    • Some considered part of “CSS Core”
    • www.w3.org/Style/CSS/

CSS 3 Browser Support

  • http://Caniuse.com
    • Can see which devices/browsers a particular element or feature works on

Browser/Vendor Prefixes

  • Browser vendors can create their own specific settings
  • For stuff not yet standardized
  • Once completed, these specific settings may be removed
  • e.g. grid-ms

Rounded Corners

  • Border-radius
    • e.g. on img
    • Can be different values on different corners
  • Can also use oval corner
  • (More the craze a while back)?

Opacity

  • Specify how opaque an element is
  • Ranges from 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (opaque)
  • F12 in browser, can emulate older versions of IE

CSS 3 Selectors

  • Attribute selectors
    • E{A=V]
    • E[A$=V] attributes ends V
    • Etc
  • input: invalid
    • If input element is invalid, apply this style

Web Fonts

  • Introduced in IE 5, was proposed for CSS 2
  • Watch licensing!
  • Watch FOUT (Flash Of Unstyled Text) and FOIT (Flash of Invisible Text)
  • @font-face

Google Fonts

  • Open Source fonts (600+)
  • <link> to fonts
  • Style-able with CSS
  • Free
  • Developers.google.com/fonts/
  • Fonts.google.com

How

  • <link> to Google site with fonts
  • font-family: ‘Lobster Two’
  • Can host fonts on your own CDN
    • Download the fonts
    • Convert to WOFF or WOFF2
  • Be aware, Google doesn’t display anything while font loading

Animations

  • Property changes in CSS values using keyframes
    • @keyframes AnimName
    • Specify percentages
      • “from” – 0%
      • “to” – 100%

2D Transforms

  • Animations using CSS transforms
  • Matrix translations
  • Transforms are render transforms, independent of layout

Media Queries

  • Media type and 1 or more expressions that check “media features”
  • For responsive design
  • Use
    • Width
    • Height
    • Color
    • Resolution
    • Orientation
  • E.g. Bootstrap
  • Question: Can I get <div> size?
    • No
    • But might be 3rd party package

Other CSS 3 Techniques

  • Box Shadows
  • Gradients
  • Text Shadows
  • Multiple Backgrounds Images
  • Word Wrap

RB: Note that we’re finally getting stuff like gradients and rounded corners at a time when de

Modernizr and Fallbacks

  • Modernizr – detects features in browser
    • Can do alternate method for some feature, e.g. use jQuery for opacity

General CSS Tips

  • Expirations
  • Rt-click, Inspect, Styles tab shows everything applied to an element
    • Can play around with different styles right in the browser

Sass

  • Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets, 2006
  •  CSS preprocessor
  • Sass in designer, compile step, converted to CSS
  • Two syntaxes
    • SCSS (Sassy CSS)  [this is the one you want]

Why Sass?

  • Provides programming concepts for CSS
  • Better organization
  • Reduced maintenance
  • Less vs. Sass
    • Very similar

Tools

  • Ruby – Sass gem
  • VS 2015
    • Web Compiler extension
    • Grunt
    • Gulp
  • Sassmeister.com
    • Experiment

Conventions

  • Myfile-gen.css (output file)

Major Features in Sass

  • Variables
  • _partials, @import
  • Mixins
  • Inheritance
  • Nested Rules and Properties
  • Functions

Variables

  • Avoid “Magic Values” (DRY)
  • $variableName: value;
    • e.g. $primaryColor: Red

_partials

  • Create files to organize SASS and styles in separate files
  • e.g. _variables.scss
  • Then @import “_variables.cscc”;
  • Then everything built into single big .css file
  • So HTML looks the same

Mixins

  • Set of declaratoins that can be reused
  • @mixin to define, @include to reuse
  • Parameters
    • Default values
    • Variable number
  • @content – pass declaration blocks

NB: Should still always look at your CSS to verify what’s getting generates

  • e.g. pay attention to size

Style Inheritance

  • Create classes that inherit from other classes
  • @extend .myBaseClass
  • Compiler will set up style for common stuff and apply to correct elements

Nested Rules and Properties

  • Just syntactic difference, embedding style in another style
  • Nested property
    • border-width generated by border: {width

Control Directives and Expressions

  • @if, @else
    • E.g. check $debugBuild
    • And set $imagePath to correct server
    • NB: for absolute URIs, start with just “//”
  • @for loop
  • @each statement to iterate through a list of items
    • CSS explodes into individual styles

Miscellaneous

  • Debug statements
  • Comments – can disappear or stay in CSS
  • Always modify .scss files, not .css files
  • Check CSS output CSS periodically
  • Minify

Frameworks/Mixin Libraries

  • Bourbon
    • Whole bunch of pre-written scss stuff
    • Only outputs to CSS what you use
  • Compass
  • Bootstrap
    • Switching to Sass/Scss
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